RVO Is the Second Most Common Cause of Blindness Due to
Retinal Vascular Disease1

RVO can be an acute or chronic condition that may be associated with serious systemic disease2-4

Typical age

Other risk factors

>50-year incidence increase with age2,3

Hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis,
CV disease, smoking

Overexpression of ocular VEGF mediates destructive pathology in RVO5,6

  • Stagnation of venous blood flow following occlusion leads to oxygen depletion and hypoxia5,6
  • Vascular damage stimulates overexpression of VEGF, leading to angiogenesis and associated macular edema5,6
  • Intraocular VEGF levels are correlated with disease severity and vision loss7,8

Systemic VEGF plays multiple roles in cellular functions, such as angiogenesis and tissue repair9,10

  • Complications attributed to decreased systemic VEGF levels include hypertension, ATEs, renal dysfunction, and wound complications10
ATE, arterial thromboembolic event; CV, cardiovascular; RVO, retinal vein occlusion; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.


References: 1. Rehak J, Rehak M. Branch retinal vein occlusion: pathogenesis, visual prognosis, and treatment modalities. Curr Eye Res. 2008;33:111-131. 2. Yanoff M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, Inc.; 2004. 3. Klein R, Moss SE, Meuer SM, Klein BEK. The 15-year cumulative incidence of retinal vein occlusion: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:513-518. 4. Cugati S, Wang JJ, Rochtchina E, Mitchell P. Ten-year incidence of retinal vein occlusion in an older population: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006;124:726-732. 5. Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 1993;3:244-250. 6. Lu M, Adamis AP. Molecular biology of choroidal neovascularization. Ophthalmol Clin N Am. 2006;19:323-334. 7. Noma H, Funatsu H, Yamasaki M, et al. Aqueous humour levels of cytokines are correlated to vitreous levels and severity of macular oedema in branch retinal vein occlusion. Eye. 2008;22;42-48. 8. Noma H, Funatsu H, Mimura T, et al. Increase of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 in the aqueous humour of patients with macular oedema and central retinal vein occlusion. Acta Ophthalmol. 2010;88:646-651. 9. Wirostko B, Wong TY, Rafael Simo. Vascular endothelial growth factor and diabetic complications. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 2008;27:608-621. 10. Chen HX, Cleck JN. Adverse effects of anticancer agents that target the VEGF pathway. Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 2009;6:465-477.